Hardness in water is caused by certain salts. The main hardness causing ions are Calcium (Ca2+), Magnesium (Mg2+) and Bicarbonate (HCO3-).
These ions or minerals are normally addressed as scale in the water causing scaling of pipes and equipment in drinking water and process water systems.
Softening units offer a water purification solution for hard water and lime scale removal.
In many applications, e.g. the preparation of drinking water, water in breweries and sodas, but also cooling water and boiler feed water, the hardness of the water is of importance.
The hardness is normally measured in German degree, French Hardness or (equivalent) concentration Ca2+.Softeners are specific ion exchangers which are designed to remove ions with a multiple positive charge.